PASSWORD:  Diabetes Management Journal is a medical journal exclusively for healthcare professionals. Apply for access here:


Diabetes Management Journal May 2022 References


An end to pricks?

  1. Martin, S. Painful departure for diabetes testing. https://www.newcastle.edu.au/hippocampus/story/2022/painful-departure-for-diabetes-testing accessed 2 April 2022.

40% remission of new-onset COVID diabetes

  1. Reuters Health. Diabetes linked to COVID-19 'may be temporary'. Specialist Updates Endocrinology. Ausdoc March 8, 2022 https://www.ausdoc.com.au/specialist-update/diabetes-linked-covid19-may-be-temporary
  2. Cromer SJ, Colling C, Schatoff D, Leary M, Stamou MI, Selen DJ, Putman MS, Wexler DJ. Newly diagnosed diabetes vs. pre-existing diabetes upon admission for COVID-19: Associated factors, short-term outcomes, and long-term glycemic phenotypes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications,36:4, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2022.108145.

SGLT2 inhibitors increase DKA risk

  1. Therapeutic Goods Administration. SGLT@ inhibitors approved for T2DM only. Medicines Safety Update 15 February 2022. https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/sglt2-inhibitors-approved-t2dm-only
  2. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors Safety advisory - diabetic ketoacidosis and surgical procedures 18 July 2018 https://www.tga.gov.au/alert/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors

Sleep deprivation increases visceral abdominal fat

  1. Kirkner RM. Sleep Deprivation Sends Fat to the Belly - Medscape - Mar 28, 2022.

Remote management of people with diabetes, within hospital

  1. Cheung NW, Hor A, Hng T-M. The Virtual Inpatient Diabetes Management Service: COVID-19 brings the future to inpatient diabetes management. MJA Letter 216:6, March 10, 2022. doi.org/10.5694/mja2.51456

Psoriatic Arthritis associated with diabetes

  1. Coates LC, Helliwell PS. Psoriatic arthritis: state of the art review. Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Feb; 17(1): 65–70. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.17-1-65 PMCID: PMC6297592
  2. Tillett W, Ogdie A, Gorecki P, et al. OP0231 Differences in real-world ptient characteristics of 8921 psoriasis patients with and without comorbid psoriatic arthritis using the UK BADBIR database. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2021;80:141.
  3. Dal Bello, G., Gisondi, P., Idolazzi, L. et al. Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review. Rheumatol Ther 7, 271–285 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40744-020-00206-7

Ultrasound treatment of diabetes: human feasibility trials started

  1. Cotero, V., Graf, J., Miwa, H. et al. Stimulation of the hepatoportal nerve plexus with focused ultrasound restores glucose homoeostasis in diabetic mice, rats and swine. Nat. Biomed. Eng (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-022-00870-w

Study: trending harm of inadequate diabetes management

  1. Jedidiah I. Morton, Peter A. Lazzarini, Jonathan E. Shaw, Dianna J. Magliano; Trends in the Incidence of Hospitalization for Major Diabetes-Related Complications in People With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Australia, 2010–2019. Diabetes Care 1 April 2022; 45 (4): 789–797. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc21-2268
  2. Worsely, R. Diabetes-related stroke and foot amputations rising in Australia. Ausdoc 22 February 2022. https://www.ausdoc.com.au/news/diabetesrelated-stroke-and-foot-amputations-rising-australia
  3. Imai C, Hardie R-A, Thomas J, Wabe N, Georgiou A. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practice-based HbA1c monitoring in type 2 diabetes. General Practice Snapshot. Issue 5: 31 March 2021. Sydney: Macquarie University. https://doi.org/10.25949/Q9BE-BJ06


p12-16 Non-insulin medications for diabetes

  1. Australian Government, Department of Health. Therapeutic Goods Administration 2021. Available from: https://www.tga.gov.au/ (accessed February 2022).
  2. Australian Government, Department of Health. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Available from: https://www.pbs.gov.au/pbs/home (accessed February 2022).
  3. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, McCombie L, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2018;391(10120):541-51.
  4. Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, McCombie L, et al. Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type 2 diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7(5):344-55.
  5. An H, He L. Current understanding of metformin effect on the control of hyperglycemia in diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2016;228(3):R97-106.
  6. Lea-Henry TN, Baird-Gunning J, Petzel E, Roberts DM. Medication management on sick days Aust Prescr 2017;40:168-73 3 October 2017 DOI: 10.18773/austprescr.2017.057
  7. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet. 1998;352(9131):837-53.
  8. Group AC, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2560-72.
  9. Phung OJ, Scholle JM, Talwar M, Coleman CI. Effect of noninsulin antidiabetic drugs added to metformin therapy on glycemic control, weight gain, and hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2010;303(14):1410-8.
  10. McIntosh B, Cameron C, Singh SR, Yu C, Ahuja T, Welton NJ, et al. Second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy: a systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis. Open Med. 2011;5(1):e35-48.
  11. Holst JJ, Deacon CF. Inhibition of the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1998;47(11):1663-70.
  12. McGill JB, Sloan L, Newman J, Patel S, Sauce C, von Eynatten M, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of linagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment: a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(2):237-44.
  13. White WB, Cannon CP, Heller SR, Nissen SE, Bergenstal RM, Bakris GL, et al. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(14):1327-35.
  14. Zannad F, Cannon CP, Cushman WC, Bakris GL, Menon V, Perez AT, et al. Heart failure and mortality outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes taking alogliptin versus placebo in EXAMINE: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9982):2067-76.
  15. Scirica BM, Bhatt DL, Braunwald E, Steg PG, Davidson J, Hirshberg B, et al. Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(14):1317-26.
  16. Scirica BM, Braunwald E, Raz I, Cavender MA, Morrow DA, Jarolim P, et al. Heart failure, saxagliptin, and diabetes mellitus: observations from the SAVOR-TIMI 53 randomized trial. Circulation. 2014;130(18):1579-88.
  17. Green JB, Bethel MA, Armstrong PW, Buse JB, Engel SS, Garg J, et al. Effect of Sitagliptin on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(3):232-42.
  18. Rosenstock J, Perkovic V, Johansen OE, Cooper ME, Kahn SE, Marx N, et al. Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk: The CARMELINA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321(1):69-79.
  19. Meier JJ, Nauck MA. Risk of pancreatitis in patients treated with incretin-based therapies. Diabetologia. 2014;57(7):1320-4.
  20. Lebovitz HE. Thiazolidinediones: the Forgotten Diabetes Medications. Curr Diab Rep. 2019;19(12):151.
  21. Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(24):2457-71.
  22. Nesto RW, Bell D, Bonow RO, Fonseca V, Grundy SM, Horton ES, et al. Thiazolidinedione use, fluid retention, and congestive heart failure: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association. October 7, 2003. Circulation. 2003;108(23):2941-8.
  23. Viscoli CM, Inzucchi SE, Young LH, Insogna KL, Conwit R, Furie KL, et al. Pioglitazone and Risk for Bone Fracture: Safety Data From a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(3):914-22.
  24. Neumann A, Weill A, Ricordeau P, Fagot JP, Alla F, Allemand H. Pioglitazone and risk of bladder cancer among diabetic patients in France: a population-based cohort study. Diabetologia. 2012;55(7):1953-62.
  25. Tang H, Shi W, Fu S, Wang T, Zhai S, Song Y, et al. Pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Med. 2018;7(4):1070-80.
  26. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M, et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9323):2072-7.
  27. Ben-Ami H, Krivoy N, Nagachandran P, Roguin A, Edoute Y. An interaction between digoxin and acarbose. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(5):860-1.
  28. Kihara Y, Ogami Y, Tabaru A, Unoki H, Otsuki M. Safe and effective treatment of diabetes mellitus associated with chronic liver diseases with an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32(6):777-82.
  29. Diabetes Australia. Tablets: Medication for type 2 diabetes. Accessed 11 April 2022. https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/living-with-diabetes/medicine/tablets/
  30. Ghosh RK, Ghosh SM, Chawla S, Jasdanwala SA. SGLT2 inhibitors: a new emerging therapeutic class in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;52(4):457-63.
  31. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, et al. Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2117-28.
  32. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, Mosenzon O, Kato ET, Cahn A, et al. Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(4):347-57.
  33. Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, Mancuso J, Huyck S, Masiukiewicz U, et al. Cardiovascular Outcomes with Ertugliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(15):1425-35.
  34. McMurray JJV, Solomon SD, Inzucchi SE, Kober L, Kosiborod MN, Martinez FA, et al. Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(21):1995-2008.
  35. Packer M, Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, Pocock SJ, Carson P, et al. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Empagliflozin in Heart Failure. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(15):1413-24.
  36. Heerspink HJL, Stefansson BV, Correa-Rotter R, Chertow GM, Greene T, Hou FF, et al. Dapagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(15):1436-46.
  37. Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, Ferreira JP, Bocchi E, Bohm M, et al. Empagliflozin in Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(16):1451-61.
  38. Wanner C, Heerspink HJL, Zinman B, Inzucchi SE, Koitka-Weber A, Mattheus M, et al. Empagliflozin and Kidney Function Decline in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Slope Analysis from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(11):2755-69.
  39. Fralick M, Schneeweiss S, Patorno E. Risk of Diabetic Ketoacidosis after Initiation of an SGLT2 Inhibitor. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(23):2300-2.
  40. Isaacs M, Tonks KT, Greenfield JR. Euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis in patients using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors. Intern Med J. 2017;47(6):701-4.
  41. Meyer EJ, Gabb G, Jesudason D. SGLT2 Inhibitor-Associated Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A South Australian Clinical Case Series and Australian Spontaneous Adverse Event Notifications. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(4):e47-e9.
  42. Australian Diabetes Society. Periprocedural Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) with SGLT2 Inhibitor Use 2020 https://diabetessociety.com.au/downloads/20201015%20ADS_DKA_SGLT2i_Alert_update_Sept_2020.pdf.
  43. Tran BA, Updike WH, Bullers K, Serag-Bolos E. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Use Associated With Fournier's Gangrene: A Review of Case Reports and Spontaneous Post-Marketing Cases. Clin Diabetes. 2022;40(1):78-86.
  44. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JF, Nauck MA, et al. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(4):311-22.
  45. Holman RR, Bethel MA, Mentz RJ, Thompson VP, Lokhnygina Y, Buse JB, et al. Effects of Once-Weekly Exenatide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(13):1228-39.
  46. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Lakshmanan M, Pais P, et al. Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2019;394(10193):121-30.
  47. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jodar E, Leiter LA, et al. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(19):1834-44.

p18 – 20  Diabetes and hearing loss – implications for general practice

  1. Bott A, Saunders G. A scoping review of studies investigating hearing loss, social isolation and/or loneliness in adults. International Journal of Audiology 2021; 60(sup2): 30-46.
  2. Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, Ames D, Ballard C, Banerjee S, Brayne C, Burns A, Cohen-Mansfield J, Cooper C, Costafreda SG, Dias A, Fox N, Gitlin LN, Howard R, Kales HC, Kivimäki M, Larson EB, Ogunniyi A, Orgeta V, Ritchie K, Rockwood K, Sampson EL, Samus Q, Schneider LS, Selbæk G, Teri L, Mukadam N. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet 2020; 396(10248): 413-46.
  3. Cosh S, Helmer C, Delcourt C, Robins TG, Tully PJ. Depression in elderly patients with hearing loss: current perspectives. Clin Interv Aging 2019; 14: 1471-80.
  4. Blazer DG. Hearing Loss: The Silent Risk for Psychiatric Disorders in Late Life. Clin Geriatr Med 2020; 36(2): 201-9.
  5. Bainbridge KE, Hoffman HJ, Cowie CC. Diabetes and hearing impairment in the United States: audiometric evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149(1): 1-10.
  6. Engdahl B, Aarhus L, Lie A, Tambs K. Cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss: The HUNT study. Int J Audiol 2015; 54(12): 958-66.
  7. Cheng YJ, Gregg EW, Saaddine JB, Imperatore G, Zhang X, Albright AL. Three decade change in the prevalence of hearing impairment and its association with diabetes in the United States. Prev Med 2009; 49(5): 360-4.
  8. Horikawa C, Kodama S, Tanaka S, et al. Diabetes and risk of hearing impairment in adults: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013; 98(1): 51-8.
  9. Akinpelu OV, Mujica-Mota M, Daniel SJ. Is type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with alterations in hearing? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Laryngoscope 2014; 124(3): 767-76.
  10. Mitchell P, Gopinath B, McMahon CM, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Boyages SC, Leeder SR. Relationship of Type 2 diabetes to the prevalence, incidence and progression of age-related hearing loss. Diabet Med 2009; 26(5): 483-8.
  11. Samocha-Bonet D, Wu B, Ryugo DK. Diabetes mellitus and hearing loss: A review. Ageing Research Reviews 2021; 71: 101423.
  12. Elangovan S, Spankovich C. Diabetes and Auditory-Vestibular Pathology. Semin Hear 2019; 40(4): 292-9.
  13. Loprinzi PD, Joyner C. Relationship Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers, and Hearing Sensitivity Using Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. Am J Audiol 2017; 26(2): 163-9.
  14. Zhan W, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R, Huang GH, Pankow JS, Gangnon RE, Tweed TS. Modifiable determinants of hearing impairment in adults. Prev Med 2011; 53(4-5): 338-42.
  15. Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Brand-Miller J, Mitchell P. Dietary glycemic load is a predictor of age-related hearing loss in older adults. J Nutr 2010; 140(12): 2207-12.
  16. Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Smith W, Mitchell P. The effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on age-related hearing loss: the Blue Mountains Hearing Study. Ear Hear 2010; 31(2): 277-82.
  17. Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Spankovich C, Hood LJ, Mitchell P. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with the prevalence but not incidence of age-related hearing loss. J Nutr Health Aging 2011; 15(10): 896-900.
  18. Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, McMahon CM, Mitchell P. Serum homocysteine and folate concentrations are associated with prevalent age-related hearing loss. J Nutr 2010; 140(8): 1469-74.
  19. Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, McMahon CM, Mitchell P. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92(2): 416-21.
  20. Gopinath B, Flood VM, Teber E, McMahon CM, Mitchell P. Dietary intake of cholesterol is positively associated and use of cholesterol-lowering medication is negatively associated with prevalent age-related hearing loss. J Nutr 2011; 141(7): 1355-61.
  21. Bennett RJ, Conway N, Fletcher S, Barr C. The Role of the General Practitioner in Managing Age-Related Hearing Loss: A Scoping Review. Am J Audiol 2020; 29(2): 265-89.
  22. McBride WS, Mulrow CD, Aguilar C, Tuley MR. Methods for screening for hearing loss in older adults. Am J Med Sci 1994; 307(1): 40-2.

p22-24  Bolus calculator apps – what they are and how to use them

  1. Schmidt, S. and Nørgaard, K. Bolus Calculators. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2014; 8(5), pp.1035-1041.
  2. Wright, E.E., Morgan, K, Fu, D.K., Guffey, W.J. Time in Range: How to Measure It, How to Report It, and Its Practical Application in Clinical Decision-Making. Clin Diabetes 2020;38(5):439–448
  3. Barnard, K, Parkin, C, Young, A, Ashraf, M. Use of an automated bolus calculator reduces fear of hypoglycemia and improves confidence in dosage accuracy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple daily insulin injections. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 2012 Jan 1;6(1):144-9
  4. Fabris, C, Nass, R.M., Pinnata, J, Carr, K.A. The Use of a Smart Bolus Calculator Informed by Real-time Insulin Sensitivity Assessments Reduces Postprandial Hypoglycemia Following an Aerobic Exercise Session in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2020 Apr; 43(4): 799-805
  5. Hanas R, Adolfsson P. Bolus Calculator Settings in Well-Controlled Prepubertal Children Using Insulin Pumps Are Characterized by Low Insulin to Carbohydrate Ratios and Short Duration of Insulin Action Time. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2016;11(2):247-252.
  6. Walsh, J, Roberts, R, Heinemann, L. Confusion regarding duration of insulin action; a potential source for major insulin dose errors by bolus calculators. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 2014 Jan; 8(1): 170–178.
  7. Barmanray, R, Briganti, E. Glycaemic control apps for diabetes: lifting the lid. The Medical Journal of Australia, 2018; 209: 10
  8. Fleming, G.A., Petrie, J.R., Bergenstal, R.M., Holl, R.W, Peters, A.L. and Heinemann, L. Diabetes Digital App Technology: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations. A Consensus Report by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Diabetes Technology Working Group. Diabetes Care 2020; 43: 250–260
  9. Pease A, Andrikopoulos S, Abraham MB, Craig ME, Fenton B, Overland J, Price S, Simmons D, and Ross GP on behalf of the ADS, ADEA, APEG, and ADIPS Working Group 2021. Utilisation, access, and recommendations regarding technologies for people living with type 1 diabetes: A consensus statement of the Australian Diabetes Society (ADS), the Australian Diabetes Educators Society (ADEA), the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG), and the Australasian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS) Working Group. Medical Journal of Australia 2021; 215 (10)
  10. Huchvale, K, Adomaviciute, S, Prieto, J.T., Leow, M, Car,J. Smartphone apps for calculating insulin dose: a systematic assessment. BMC Medicine (2015) 13:106
  11. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Management of type 2 diabetes: A handbook for general practice. RACGP, 2020, page 143

p27-29 Reality Check: De-prescribing medication for T2D

  1. Cucuzzella M, Riley K, Isaacs D. Adapting Medication for Type 2 Diabetes to a Low Carbohydrate Diet. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021:486.
  2. Fernandes A, Freeman E, Zhen XM, et al., Diabetes Remission, Diabetes Management Journal Aug 2021 pp. 10-14.
  3. Hallberg SJ, Gershuni VM, Hazbun TL, and Athinarayanan SJ. Reversing type 2 diabetes: a narrative review of the evidence. Nutrients. 2019 Apr;11(4):766.
  4. Hinder S, Greenhalgh T. ‘This does my head in’. Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes. BMC Health Services Research. 2012 Dec;12(1):1-6.
  5. Trevena L. Minimally disruptive medicine for patients with complex multimorbidity. Australian Journal of General Practice. 2018, April pp. 175-9.
  6. Griauzde DH, Lopez KS, Saslow LR, Richardson CR. A pragmatic approach to translating low-and very low-carbohydrate diets into clinical practice for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021;8
  7. Murdoch C, Unwin D, Cavan D, Cucuzzella M, and Patel, M., 2019. Adapting diabetes medication for low carbohydrate management of type 2 diabetes: a practical guide. British Journal of General Practice, 69(684), pp.360-361.
  8. Erpeldinger S, Rehman M.B, Berkhout, C et al. 2016. Efficacy and safety of insulin in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC endocrine disorders, 16(1), pp.1-15.
  9. Figtree, P Deprescribing diabetes meds with a low-carb approach, Australian Doctor, October 20, 2021
  10. Murray SW, McKelvey S, Heseltine TD, et al. 2021. The “discordant doppelganger dilemma”: SGLT2i mimics therapeutic carbohydrate restriction-food choice first over pharma? Journal of Human Hypertension, pp.1-8.
  11. Webster CC, Murphy TE, Larmuth KM, Noakes TD, Smith JA. Diet, diabetes status, and personal experiences of individuals with type 2 diabetes who self-selected and followed a low carbohydrate high fat diet. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: targets and therapy. 2019;12:2567.
  12. Wolver S, Fadel K, Fieger E, et al. Clinical Use of a Real-World Low Carbohydrate Diet Resulting in Reduction of Insulin Dose, Hemoglobin A1c, and Weight. Frontiers in nutrition. 2021;8.
  13. Karter AJ, Nundy S, Parker MM, et al. 2014. Incidence of remission in adults with type 2 diabetes: the diabetes & aging study. Diabetes Care, 37(12), pp.3188-3195.
  14. Herman, ME, O'Keefe, JH, Bell, DS and Schwartz, SS, 2017. Insulin therapy increases cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 60(3), pp.422-434.
  15. Kelly CT, Mansoor J, Dohm GL, et al. 2014. Hyperinsulinemic syndrome: the metabolic syndrome is broader than you think. Surgery, 156(2), pp.405-411.
  16. Jalleh R, Stranks S, Niche oral agents in type 2 diabetes, Endocrinology Today August 2021 Vol 10. No. 3 pp. 29-32.

p32-34 Diabetes management: What’s carbohydrates got to do with it?

  1. Mann J & Morenga LT. Carbohydrates in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2015;32(5):572-575.
  2. Breen C, McKenzie K et al. A qualitative investigation of patients understanding of carbohydrate in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 2016; 29(2):146-155.
  3. Jacobsen S, Vistisen D et al. The quality of dietary carbohydrate and fat is associated with better metabolic control in persons with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Nutrition Journal 202;19:125.
  4. Diabetes Australia. Glycemic Index. Available at URL https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/food-activity/eating-well/glycemic-index/ Accessed March 2022.
  5. Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and glycemic response: an International scientific consensus summit from the International carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC). Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015;25(9):795-815.
  6. Pi-Sunyer F. Glycemic index and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:S290-S298.
  7. Sonia S, Witjaksono F et al. Effect of cooling of cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2015;24(4):620-625.
  8. Abutair A, Naser I & Hamed A. Soluble fibres from psyllium improve glycemic response and body weight among diabetes type 2 patients (randomised control trial). Nutrition Journal 2016;15:86.
  9. Freitas D, Boue F et al. Lemon juice, but not tea, reduces the glycemic response to bread in healthy volunteers: a randomised crossover trial. Eur J Nutr 2021;60(1):113-122.
  10. Augustin L, Kendall C, Jenkins D et al. Vega-Lopez S, Venn B and Slavin J. Relevance of the glycaemic index and glycaemic load for body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Nutrients 2018;10(10):1361.
  11. Diabetes Australia. What Should I Eat. Available at URL https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/food-activity/eating-well/what-should-i-eat/ Accessed March 2022.
  12. World Health Organization. Guideline: Sugar intake for adults and children. Available at URL https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/668769/retrieve Accessed March 2022.

-- ENDS --