Scroll down for references for this edition

PASSWORD:  Diabetes Management Journal is a medical journal exclusively for healthcare professionals. Apply for access here:


Diabetes Management Journal February 2019 References


  1. Reuters Health staff writer. Bright deltoid muscle on ultrasound may reveal diabetes. Medical Observer, 29 Nov 2018. Avail at https://www.medicalobserver.com.au/specialist-update/bright-deltoid-muscle-ultrasound-may-reveal-diabetes Accessed 6 Feb 2019.
  2. O’Connell S, Siafarikas A. Addison disease diagnosis and initial management. AFP 2010 39;11
  3. Chantzichristos D, et al. Early Clinical Indicators of Addison’s Disease in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: a Nationwide, Observational, Cohort Study. J Clin Endo Metab, Nov 2018 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2018-02064
  4. Cundy T, Ackermann E, Ryan A. Gestational diabetes: new criteria may triple the prevalence but effect on outcomes is unclear. BMJ Vol. 348 (Mar 2014)
  5. Cade TJ, et al. Implications of the introduction of new criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes: a health outcome and cost of care analysis. BMJ Open 2019;9:e023293.


p 10-13 A GP approach to managing obesity

  1. Fabbrini E, Yoshino J, Yoshino M, et al. Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2015 02/02/;125(2):787-95.
  2. Fildes A, Charlton J, Rudisill C, Littlejohns P, Prevost AT, Gulliford MC. Probability of an Obese Person Attaining Normal Body Weight: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records. American journal of public health. 2015 Sep;105(9):e54-9.
  3. Holzapfel C, Cresswell L, Ahern AL, et al. The challenge of a 2-year follow-up after intervention for weight loss in primary care. International journal of obesity (2005). 2014 Jun;38(6):806-11.
  4. Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-Term Persistence of Hormonal Adaptations to Weight Loss. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365(17):1597-604.
  5. Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J, Gallagher DA, Leibel RL. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008 Oct;88(4):906-12.
  6. Sturgiss EA, Elmitt N, Haesler E, van Weel C, Douglas K. Feasibility and acceptability of a physician-delivered weight management programme. Family practice. 2017 Feb;34(1):43-8.
  7. Nolan CJ, Damm P, Prentki M. Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management. Lancet (London, England). 2011 Jul 9;378(9786):169-81.
  8. Kowaleski-Jones L, Zick C, Smith KR, Brown B, Hanson H, Fan J. Walkable neighborhoods and obesity: Evaluating effects with a propensity score approach. SSM - Population Health. 2018 2018/12/01/;6:9-15.
  9. Creatore MI, Glazier RH, Moineddin R, et al. Association of neighborhood walkability with change in overweight, obesity, and diabetes. JAMA. 2016;315(20):2211-20.
  10. Tung EL, Wroblewski KE, Boyd K, Makelarski JA, Peek ME, Lindau ST. Police-Recorded Crime and Disparities in Obesity and Blood Pressure Status in Chicago. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018;7(7):e008030.
  11. Shin‐Yi Chou, Inas Rashad, Michael Grossman. Fast‐Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Childhood Obesity. The Journal of Law and Economics. 2008;51(4):599-618.
  12. Mehta NK, Chang VW. Weight status and restaurant availability a multilevel analysis. American journal of preventive medicine. 2008;34(2):127-33.
  13. Sharma AM, Campbell-Scherer DL. Redefining obesity: Beyond the numbers. Obesity. 2017;25(4):660-1.
  14. Padwal RS, Pajewski NM, Allison DB, Sharma AM. Using the Edmonton obesity staging system to predict mortality in a population-representative cohort of people with overweight and obesity. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2011;183(14):E1059-E66.
  15. Sturgiss EA, Agostino J. Preventive Health Care Should Focus on Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Not Obesity Alone. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2018;71(7):815-6.
  16. Eating Disorders & Obesity Treatments A systematic review of the physical, psychological and eating disorders outcomes from obesity treatments. Sydney: National Eating Disorders Collaboration; 207.
  17. Banks E. Smoking and the dangers of complacency. MJA Insight. 2018(40).
  18. Sturgiss EA, van Weel C, Ball L, Jansen S, Douglas K. Obesity management in Australian primary care: where has the general practitioner gone? Australian journal of primary health. 2016 Nov 07.
  19. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children in Australia. In: Council NHaMR, editor. Melbourne: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2013.
  20. Tan D, Zwar NA, Dennis SM, Vagholkar S. Weight management in general practice: what do patients want? The Medical journal of Australia. 2006 Jul 17;185(2):73-5.
  21. Pereira Gray DJ, Sidaway-Lee K, White E, Thorne A, Evans PH. Continuity of care with doctors—a matter of life and death? A systematic review of continuity of care and mortality. BMJ Open. 2018;8(6):e021161.
  22. Sturgiss EA, Sargent GM, Haesler E, Rieger E, Douglas K. Therapeutic alliance and obesity management in primary care - a cross-sectional pilot using the Working Alliance Inventory. Clinical obesity. 2016 Dec;6(6):376-9.
  23. Hendricks EJ, Srisurapanont M, Schmidt SL, et al. Addiction potential of phentermine prescribed during long-term treatment of obesity. International Journal Of Obesity. 2013 05/17/online;38:292.
  24. Sturgiss E, Jay M, Campbell-Scherer D, van Weel C. Challenging assumptions in obesity research. BMJ. 2017;359.
  25. Coulter AA, Rebello CJ, Greenway FL. Centrally Acting Agents for Obesity: Past, Present, and Future. Drugs. 2018 Jul;78(11):1113-32.
  26. Park R. Hypoglycaemics at a glance. Diabetes Management Journal. 2018, May. p18-19

p17-19 Managing Sick Days

  1. Deed G, Ackermann E, Arthur I, Barlow J, Jagadeesan S, Kawol D, et al. General Practice Management of Type 2 Diabetes: 2016–18. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP); 2016.
  2. Australian Diabetes Educators Association. Guidelines for sick day management for people with diabetes. Western ACT ADEA. 2006.
  3. Montori VM, Bistrian BR, McMahon MM. Hyperglycemia in acutely ill patients. Jama. 2002;288(17):2167-9.
  4. Laffel L. Sick-day management in type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2000;29(4):707-23.
  5. Laffel L. Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 1999;15(6):412-26.
  6. Rosenstock J, Ferrannini E. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a predictable, detectable, and preventable safety concern with SGLT2 inhibitors. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(9):1638-42.
  7. Ogawa W, Sakaguchi K. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis induced by SGLT2 inhibitors: possible mechanism and contributing factors. Journal of diabetes investigation. 2016;7(2):135-8.
  8. Australian Diabetes Educators Association. Clinical guiding principles for sick day management of adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Technical document Woden, ACT: ADEA. 2016.
  9. Therapeutic Guidelines Limited. Therapeutic Guidelines: Endocrinology. West Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited; 2018.
  10. Australian Medicines Handbook Pty Ltd. Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide 2018.

p20-21 Self-monitoring of blood glucose - the controversy

  1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2010. Diabetes Care 2009;32(Suppl. 1):S4–S10
  2. Colagiuri S, Dickinson S, Girgis S, Colagiuri R. National Evidence Based Guideline for BloodGlucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Australia and the NHMRC, Canberra 2009.
  3. Schnell O et al. Clinical utility of SMBG: recommendations on the use and reporting of SMBG in clinical research. Diabetes Care. 2015; 38(9) 1627-1633
  4. Malanda  UL, Welschen  LMC, Riphagen  II, Dekker  JM, Nijpels  G, Bot  SDM. Self‐monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are not using insulin. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1
  5. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Diabetes snapshot [Internet]. 2018 [last updated 24 July 2018]; AIHW cat. no. CVD 84. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-snapshot/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes
  6. Australian Government Department of Health. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme: post-market review of products used in the management of diabetes. Canberra: DoH, 2013. Available from: http://www.pbs.gov.au/reviews/diabetes-medicines-files/draft-report-review-type-2-diabetes-medicines.pdf;jsessionid=k3ygky5r3ye1r9b3btc18cs9/
  7. The Department of Health/ National Diabetes Services Scheme . Changes to access to blood glucose strips. Last updated 09 January 2018. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/ndss-blood-glucose-test-strips
  8. Schnell O et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: recent studies. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013; 7 (2): 478-488
  9. Polonsky WH et al. Structured self-monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduces A1C levels in poorly controlled, noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes: results from the Structured Testing Program study. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34 (2): 262-7
  10. Speight J, et al. Diabetes Australia position statement: Glucose self-monitoring in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Canberra: Diabetes Australia, 2017

p23-26 When Steroids meet diabetes

  1. eResource: Australian Drug Information (AusDi) | UTS Library - University of Technology, Sydney [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2019 Jan 5]. Available from: http://www.lib.uts.edu.au/news/339159/eresource-australian-drug-information-ausdi
  2. Corticosteroids - Glucocorticoid Effects (Systemic) - AusDI [Internet]. AusDi. 2019 [cited 2019 Jan 5]. Available from: https://ausdi.hcn.com.au/productMonograph.hcn?file=0444#d75104e1096
  3. Funder J. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology: Corticosteroids - mechanisms of action. Aust Prescr [Internet]. NPS MedicineWise; 1996 Apr 1 [cited 2019 Jan 7];16(2):41–4. Available from: https://www.nps.org.au/australian-prescriber/magazine/19/2/41/4
  4. Lansang MC, Kramer Hustak L. Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes and adrenal suppression: How to detect and manage them | Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine. 2011 [cited 2019 Jan 27]. p. 748–56.
  5. Drug-induce hyperglycaemia [published Jan 2019]. In: eTG complete [Internet]. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited; 2019 Jan.
  6. Nes WD. Biosynthesis of cholesterol and other sterols. Chem Rev [Internet]. American Chemical Society; 2011 Oct 12 [cited 2019 Jan 7];111(10):6423–51. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21902244U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  7. Fugmann B, Lang-Fugmann S, Steglich W, editors. RÖMPP Encyclopedia Natural Products, 1st Edition, 2000 - Google Books [Internet]. 1st ed. Thieme; 2000 [cited 2019 Jan 7].
  8. Eustachi [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2016 [cited 2019 Jan 1]. Available from: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/historicalanatomies/eustachi_bio.html
  9. Walsh, J.J. (1909). Bartolomeo Eustachius. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. [cited 2019 Jan 1] from New Advent: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05626d.htm
  10. Stringer J. Basic concepts in pharmacology : what you need to know for each drug class / 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017 [cited 2018 Dec 5]. 185 p.
  11. Pasero G, Marson P. short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. IV. Corticosteroids. Reumatismo [Internet]. 2010 Jun 24 [cited 2019 Jan 2];62(4):292–9. Available from: http://www.reumatismo.org/index.php/reuma/article/view/496
  12. Kendall E, Reichstein T, Hench P. Award ceremony speech - NobelPrize.org [Internet]. Nobel Prize. 1950 [cited 2019 Jan 7]. Available from: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1950/ceremony-speech/
  13. SAVAGE O. Cortisone (compound E) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc R Soc Med [Internet]. Royal Society of Medicine Press; 1950 Jan [cited 2019 Jan 7];43(1):11–20. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15404380
  14. Popovic M, Blum CA, Nigro N, Mueller B, Schuetz P, Christ-Crain M. Benefit of adjunct corticosteroids for community-acquired pneumonia in diabetic patients. Diabetologia [Internet]. 2016 Dec 10 [cited 2019 Jan 6];59(12):2552–60. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614658
  15. Stepan JG, London DA, Boyer MI, Calfee RP. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections Into the Hand and Wrist. J Hand Surg Am [Internet]. 2014 Apr [cited 2019 Jan 5];39(4):706–12. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679910
  16. Kwon S, Hermayer KL, Hermayer K. Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia. Am J Med Sci [Internet]. 2013 Apr [cited 2019 Jan 7];345(4):274–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23531958
  17. Mathieu S, Couderc M, Malochet-Guinamand S, Dubost J-J, Tournadre A, Soubrier M. Effect of Corticosteroid Injections on Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients. JCR J Clin Rheumatol [Internet]. 2018 May [cited 2018 Nov 11];1. Available from: http://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00124743-900000000-99240
  18. Aleem AW, Syed UAM, Nicholson T, Getz CL, Namdari S, Beredjiklian PK, et al. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections into the Subacromial Space of the Shoulder. Arch bone Jt Surg [Internet]. 2017 Sep [cited 2018 Nov 11];5(5):315–21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29226203
  19. Lee C-H, Kim J, Jang E-J. Inhaled Corticosteroids Use Is Not Associated With an Increased Risk of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Medicine (Baltimore) [Internet]. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2017 May [cited 2019 Jan 7];96(20):e7016. Available from: http://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005792-201705190-00041
  20. O’Byrne PM, Rennard S, Gerstein H, Radner F, Peterson S, Lindberg B, et al. Risk of new onset diabetes mellitus in patients with asthma or COPD taking inhaled corticosteroids. Respir Med [Internet]. 2012 Nov [cited 2019 Jan 7];106(11):1487–93. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902134
  21. Gomez EC, Frost P. Induction of glycosuria and hyperglycemia by topical corticosteroid therapy. Arch Dermatol [Internet]. 1976 Nov [cited 2019 Jan 7];112(11):1559–62. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/984862
  22. Nilsson JE, Gip LJ. Systemic effects of local treatment with high doses of potent corticosteroids in psoriatics. Acta Derm Venereol [Internet]. 1979 [cited 2019 Jan 7];59(3):245–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/87083
  23. Simmons LR, Molyneaux L, Yue DK, Chua EL. Steroid-induced diabetes: is it just unmasking of type 2 diabetes? ISRN Endocrinol [Internet]. Hindawi Limited; 2012 [cited 2019 Jan 7];2012:910905. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22830041
  24. Bauerle KT, Harris C. Glucocorticoids and Diabetes. Mo Med [Internet]. Missouri State Medical Association; 2016 [cited 2019 Jan 1];113(5):378–83. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3022850

p32 – p33 Food Stuff – Ketogenic diets

  1. Hu T, Mills K, Yao L et al. Effects of low carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials. Am J Epidemiol 2012;176(Suppl 7):S44-S54.
  2. Sainsbury E et al. Effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction on glycaemic control in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2018;139:239-252.
  3. Meng T et al. Efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus management: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2017;131:124-131.
  4. Diabetes Australia. Position Statement: Low carbohydrate eating for people with diabetes. August 2018. Available at URL https://static.diabetesaustralia.com.au/s/fileassets/diabetes-australia/8b4a8a54-f6b0-4ce6-bfc2-159686db7983.pdf. Accessed December 2018.
  5. Turton JL, Raab R, Rooney RB. Low carbohydrate diets for type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 2018;13(3):e0194987.
  6. Snorgaard O et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care 2017;5(1).
  7. De Bock M et al. Endocrine and metabolic consequences due to restrictive carbohydrate diets in children with type 1 diabetes: An illustrative case series. Pediatric Diabetes 2017.
  8. Carlton JD. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010;7:24.
  9. Yabe et al. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor use and dietary carbohydrate intake in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, open-label, 3-arm parallel comparative, exploratory study. Diabetes Obes Metab 2017;19:739-743.
  10. Singh RK et al. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. J Transl Med 2017;15:73.
  11. Wheless J. History of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia 2008 Nov;49 Suppl 8:3-5

-- ENDS --