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Diabetes Management Journal February 2021 References


LADA exposed by COVID-19 infection

Omotosho YB, Ying GW, Stolar M, Mallari JP. (January 13, 2021) COVID-19-Induced Diabetic Ketoacidosis in an Adult with Latent Autoimmune Diabetes. Cureus 13(1): e12690. DOI 10.7759/cureus.12690

Meta-analysis of Low-Carb for T2D

BMJ 2021;372:m4743

$38m for New Research Centres


Maybe the Mitochrondria – Japanese Men with T2D

  1. Belman, O. Newly Discovered Mitochondrial Mutation in the MOTS-c Region Increases the Risk of Diabetes in Japanese Men. USC Leonard Davies School of Gerontology. Accessed at https://gero.usc.edu/2021/01/21/mitochondria-mutation-diabetes-japanese-men/
  2. Zempo H , Su-Jeong Kim SJ, Fuku N, Nishida Y, Higaki Y, Wan JX , Yen K, Miller B , Vicinanza R, Miyamoto-Mikami E, Kumagai H , Naito H , Xiao JL, Mehta HH, Lee CH, Hara M , Patel YM, Setiawan VW , Moore TM , Hevener AL , Sutoh Y, Shimizu A, Kojima K, Kinoshita K, Arai Y , Hirose N, Maeda S, Tanaka K, Cohen P. A pro-diabetogenic mtDNA polymorphism in the mitochondrial-derived peptide, MOTS-c. Aging 13-2 https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202529

COVID-19: Metformin Associated with Lower Mortality

  1. Crouse AB, Grimes T, Li P, Might M, Ovalle F, Shalev A. Metformin Use Is Associated With Reduced Mortality in a Diverse Population With COVID-19 and Diabetes. Front. Endocrinol., 13 January 2021 https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.600439
  2. Bramante BT, Ingraham NE, Murray TA, Marmor S, Hovertsen S, Gronski J, McNeil C, Feng RY, Guzman G, Abdelwahab N, King S, Meehan T, Pendleton KM, Benson B, Vojta D, Tignanelli CJ. Observational Study of Metformin and Risk of Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.20135095


p8-12 An evidence-based medical weight loss plan for people with prediabetes or T2D

  1. Proietto J. Mechanisms of insulin resistance caused by nutrient toxicity. Hepatology Research 2005 33:87-91
  2. Eldor R, Raz I. Lipotoxicity versus adipotoxicity- the deleterious effects of adipose tissue on Beta cells in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res and clin practice 2006 74:S3-S8
  3. Aston-Mourney K, Proietto J, Morahan G and Andrikopoulos S. Too much of a good thing: why it is bad to stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin. Diabetologia 2008 51:540-545
  4. Randeree HA, Omar MAK, Motala AA, Seedat MA. Effect of insulin therapy on Blood pressure in NIDDM patients with secondary failure 1992 15: 1258-1263
  5. Iida KT, Shimano H, Kawakami Y, Sone H, Toyoshima H, Suzuki S, Asano T, Okuda Y, and Yamada N. Insulin upregulates tumor necrosis factor- production in macrophages through an extracellular-regulated kinase-dependent pathway. JBC 2001 276:32531-32537
  6. Lean EJ Leslie WS, Barnes AC, Brosnahan N, Thom G, McCombie L, Peters C, Zhyzhneuskaya SZ, Al-Mrabeh A, Hollingsworth KG, Rodrigues AM, Rehackova L, Adamson J, Sniehotta FF, Mathers JC, Ross HM, Mcllvenna Y, Stefanetti R Taylor R. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet 2018 391:513-630
  7. Steven S, Carey PE, Small PK, Taylor R. Reversal of Type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery is determined by the degree of the achieved weight loss in both short-and long duration diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 2015 32:47-53.
  8. Dixon JB, O’Brien PE, Playfair J, Chapman L, Schachter LM, Skinner S, Proietto J, Bailey M, Anderson M. Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes. JAMA 2008 299:316-323
  9. Sumithram P, Proietto J. Safe year-long use of a very-low calorie diet for the treatment of severe obesity. Med J Aust 2008 May 17 188(6):366-8
  10. Purcell K, Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Bouniu J, Delbridge E, Proietto J. The effect of rate of weight loss on long term weight management: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 2:954-62
  11. He W, Lam TKT, Obici S, Rossetti L. Molecular disruption of hypothalamic nutrient sensing induces obesity. Nature Neuroscience 2006 9:227-233
  12. Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, Purcell K, Shulkes A, Kriketos A and Proietto J. Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss. European J of Nutrition 2013. 67:759-764
  13. Stunkard AJ, Harris JR, Pedersen NL, McClearn GE. The body mass of twins who have been reared apart. N Engl J Med 1990 322:1483-1487
  14. Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres J-P, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med 1990 322:1477-1482
  15. Stunkard AJ, Sorensen TIA, Hanis C, Teasdale TW, Chakraborty R, Schull WJ, Schulsinger F. An adoption study of human obesity. N Engl J Med 1986 314:193-198
  16. Vaisse C, Clement K, Guy-Grand B, Frougel P. A frameshift mutation in human MC4R is associated with a dominant form of obesity. Nature Genetics 1998 20:113-114
  17. Dina C, Meyre D, Frougel P. Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity. Nature Genetics 2007 39:724-726
  18. Ravelli G-P, Stein ZA, Susser MW. Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. N Engl J Med 1976 295:349-353
  19. Huypens P, Sass S, Wu M, Dyckhoff D, Tschop M, Theis F, Marschall S, Hrabe de Angelis M, Beckers J. Epigenetic germline inheritance of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Nature Genetics 2016 48:497-499
  20. Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. New Engl J Med 1995 332:621-628
  21. Keim NL, Stern JS, Havel PJ. Relation between circulating leptin concentrations and appetite during a prolonged, moderate energy deficit in women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:794-801
  22. Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J, Gallagher DA, Leibel RL. Long-term persistence of adaptive thermogenesis in subjects who have maintained a reduced body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 88:906-912
  23. Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, Purcell K, Shulkes A, Kriketos A, Proietto J. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med 2011 365:1597-1604
  24. Fothergill E, Guo J, Howard L, Kerns JC, Knuth ND, Brychta R, Chen KY, Skarulis MC, Walter M, Hall KD. Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity 2016. 24:1612-1619
  25. Pratley RE , Aroda VR, Lingvay I, Lüdemann J , Andreassen C , Navarria A , Viljoen A, SUSTAIN 7 investigators Semaglutide versus dulaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN 7): a randomised, open-label, phase 3b trial Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 6:275-286
  26. Nuffer WA, Trujillo JM. Liraglutide: A new option for the treatment of Obesity. Pharmacotherapy 2015; 35: 926-34
  27. Munro JF, MacCuish AC, Wilson EM and Duncan LJ Comparison of Continuous and Intermittent Anorectic therapy in obesity British Medical Journal 1968 1 (5588):352-354
  28. Nissen SE, Wolski KE, Prcela L, Wadden T, Buse JB, Bakris G, Perez A, Smith SR. Effect of Naltrexone-Bupropion on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Overweight and Obese Patients With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 315(10):990-1004.
  29. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA. Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 20(3):270-9
  30. Friedrichsen M, Breitschaft A, Tadayon S, Wizert A, Skovgaard D. The effect of semaglutide 2.4 mg once weekly on energy intake, appetite, control of eating, and gastric emptying in adults with obesity. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Dec 2. doi: 10.1111/dom.14280. Online ahead of print.PMID: 33269530

p14 – 17 Avoiding Amputations

  1. Peter A Lazzarini, Jaap J van Netten, Robert A Fitridge, Ian Griffiths, Ewan M Kinnear, Matthew Malone, Byron M Perrin, Jenny Prentice and Paul R Wraight. Pathway to ending avoidable diabetes-related amputations in Australia. Med J Aust 2018; 209 (7). doi: 10.5694/mja17.0119.
  2. Van Netten JJ, Lazzarini PA, Fitridge R, et al. Australian diabetes-related foot disease strategy 2018e2022: the first step towards ending avoidable amputations within a generation. Brisbane: Diabetic Foot Australia, 2017. https://www.diabeticfootaustralia.org/for-researchers/australian-diabetesrelated-foot-disease-strategy-2018-2022/ (viewed November 2020).
  3. Lazzarini PA, Pacella RE, Armstrong DG, van Netten JJ. Diabetes‐related lower‐extremity complications are a leading cause of the global burden of disability Diabetic Medicine [ letter] https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.13680.
    3. Lazzarini PA, Gurr JM, Rogers JR, et al. Diabetes foot disease: the Cinderella of Australian diabetes management? J Foot Ankle Res 2012; 5: 24.
  4. Paul E Norman, Deborah E Schoen, Joel M Gurr and Marlene L Kolybaba High rates of amputation among Indigenous people in Western Australia. Med J Aust 2010; 192 (7): 421. || doi: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03571.x
  5. https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/healthcare-variation/atlas-2015 Australian AIHW (viewed November 2020).
  6. NADC iHRFS Standards of accreditation https://nadc.net.au/hrfs-standards/# (accessed November 2020)
  7. NSW Dept of Health. http://www.eih.health.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/570015/ACI-LBVC-HRFS-organisational-model.pdf (viewed November 2020)
  8. NSW Dept of Health. http://www.eih.health.nsw.gov.au/lbvc/projects/diabetes-high-risk-foot-services

Foot Forward Program Management:
A Program Executive Committee oversees the joint program development and delivery by Diabetes Australia and ADS. Key members include: Ms Natalie Wischer (Program Director - HP), Ms Taryn Black (Program Lead – Consumer), A/Prof. Sof Andrikopoulos, A/Prof. Greg Johnson (Chair), plus Program support staff employed by Diabetes Australia and the Australian Diabetes Society.
The Program Steering Committee meets quarterly or as required with membership: A/Prof. Greg Johnson, Diabetes Australia, Chair, A/Prof Glynis Ross, ADS, Prof Stephen Twigg, ADS, A/Prof. Sof Andrikopoulos, ADS, Ms Natalie Wischer, NADC, Ms Taryn Black, Diabetes Australia, Ms Jan Ridd, Diabetes Australia, Ms Tracey Andrews, Department of Health, Mr Jonathon Logue, Department of Health, Mr Tony Wynd, Department of Health.

NameLocationDisciplineExpertiseProfessional Connections
Professor Stephen Twigg (Foot Forward Clinical Lead)SydneyEndocrinologist
Director of Endocrinology Department RPA
High Risk Foot Services Diabetes Research;Kellion Professor of Endocrinology, Stan Clark Chair in Diabetes Sydney Medical School USyd; Hon. NADC Foot Network Chair
Dr Rajna OgrinMelbourneClinical PodiatristResearch - evidence based practice reform in models of careSenior Research Fellow at Bolton Clarke Research Institute
Professor Alex BrownAdelaideBA Medicine, MPH, PhD, Leader, Aboriginal Research Unit South Australian Health & Medical Research InstituteResearch and Policy chronic disease in vulnerable communities. Mixed method health research in aboriginal primary care and hospital settings.Heart Foundation, Chris cardiac society indigenous cardiovascular council. Previous member of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Equity Council (2009-2012)
 Dr Mark Hamilton Darwin Vascular Surgeon HRFS & Tertiary care Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, ANZSVS, ESVS
 Dr Gary Deed Brisbane GP Primary Care Diabetes RACGP
 Mary Ryan Melbourne Nurse, CDE, Community Wound Care - Australian Diabetes Educators Association
 Dr Emma Hamilton Perth Endocrinologist, Rural and Remote, Lead of MDT Diabetic foot unit Fiona Stanley Hospital Tertiary care HRFS, Research DFD Senior lecturer UWA, Fremantle Diabetes Study Team
 Pamela Chen Hobart Podiatry Health Literacy, Research, Auditing, Credentialing Advanced Practicing Podiatrists, LEAP committee member
 Dr Peter Lazzarini Brisbane Podiatry Principal Research Fellow Diabetes Feet Australia (DFA), School of Public Health & Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Early Career Fellow

p18 Clinic Pull-out- Diabetes Foot Risk Stratification and Triage

  1. International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines – 2019: https://iwgdfguidelines.org/guidelines/guidelines/
  2. Identification and Management of Foot Complications in Diabetes (Part of the Guidelines on Management of Type 2 Diabetes) 2011. Melbourne Australia
  3. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management NICE guideline (NG19): https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG19
  4. D-Foot International fast track pathway: https://d-foot.org/projects/fast-track-pathway-for-diabetic-foot-ulceration

p19 Clinic Pull-out- Active Foot Disease Pathway

  1. International Working Group Diabetic Foot Guidelines – 2019: https://iwgdfguidelines.org/guidelines/guidelines/
  2. Identification and Management of Foot Complications in Diabetes (Part of the Guidelines on Management of Type 2 Diabetes) 2011. Melbourne Australia
  3. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management NICE guideline (NG19): https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG19
  4. D-Foot International fast track pathway: https://d-foot.org/projects/fast-track-pathway-for-diabetic-foot-ulceration
  5. NADC Collaborative Interdisciplinary Diabetes HRFS Standards 2018: https://nadc.net.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/HRFS-Standards-FINAL-9.7.18.pdf

p20-22 Diabetes & rheumatology: the musculoskeletal diseases

  1. Banon S, Isenberg DA. Rheumatological manifestations occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus. Scand J Rheumatol 2013;42:1-10.
  2. Burner TW, Rosenthal AK. Diabetes and rheumatic diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2009 Jan;21:50-4.
  3. Larkin ME, Barnie A, Braffett BH, Cleary PA, Diminick L, Harth J, Gatcomb P, Golden E, Lipps J, Lorenzi G, Mahony C, Nathan DM. Musculoskeletal complications in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2014 Jul;37:1863-9.
  4. Smolen JS, Aletaha D, McInnes IB. Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2016 Oct;388:2023-38.
  5. Bao YK, Weide LG, Ganesan VC, Jakhar I, McGill JB, Sahil S, Cheng AL, Gaddis M, Drees BM. High prevalence of comorbid autoimmune diseases in adults with type 1 diabetes from the healthfacts database. J Diabetes 2019 Apr;11:273-9.
  6. Solomon DH, Love TJ, Canning C, Schneeweiss S. Risk of diabetes among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis. Ann Rheum Dis 2010 Dec;69:2114-7.
  7. Van Tubergen A. The changing clinical picture and epidemiology of spondyloarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2015 Feb;11:110-8.
  8. Dubreuil M, Rho YH, Man A, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Love TJ, Ogdie A, Gelfand JM, Choi HK. Diabetes incidence in psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: a UK population-based cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014 Feb;53:346-52.
  9. Di Minno MN, Peluso R, Iervolino S, Lupol R, Russolillo A, Scarpa R, di Minno G. Obesity and the prediction of minimal disease activity. A prospective study in psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2013 Jan;65(1):141-7.
  10. Collier A, Stirling, Cameron L, Hair M, Crosbie M. Gout and diabetes: a common combination. Postgrad Med J 2016 July;92(1089):372-8.
  11. Kim SC, Liu J, Solomon DH. Risk of incident diabetes in patients with gout. Arthritis and Rheumatol 2015 Jan;67(1):273-80.
  12. Rho YH, Lu N, Peloquin CE, Man A, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Choi HK. Independent impact of gout on the risk of diabetes mellitus among women and men: a population-based, BMI-matched cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jan;75:91-5.
  13. Abeles AM, Pilinger MH. Gout and cardiovascular disease: crystallized confusion. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2019 Mar; 31(2):118-24.
  14. Fitzgerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, Brignardello-Petersen R, Guyatt G, Abeles AM, Gelber AC, Harrold LR, Khanna D, King C, Levy G, Libbey C, Mount D, Pillinger MH, Rosenthal A, Singh JA, Sims JE, Smith BJ, Wenger NS, Bae SS, Danve A, Khanna PP, Kim SC, Lenert A, Poon S, Qasim A, Sehra ST, Sharma TSK, Toprover M, Turgunbaev M, Zeng L, Zhang MA, Turner AS, Neogi T. 2020 American college of rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res 2020 June;72(6):1-17.
  15. Holland R, McGill NW. Comprehensive dietary education in treated gout patients does not further improve serum urate. Intern Med J 2015;45(2):189-94.
  16. Tilg H, Moschen AR, Roden M. NAFLD and diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Gastro Hepatol 2017 Jan;14(1):32-42.
  17. Ledingham J, Gullick N, Irving K, Gorodkin R, Aris M, Burke J, Gordon P, Christidis D, Galloway S, Hayes E, Jeffries A, Mercer S, Mooney J, van Leuven S, Galloway J. BSR and BHPR guideline for the prescription and monitoring of non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 June;56(6):865-8.
  18. Shetty A, Cho W, Alazawi W, Syn WK. Methotrexate hepatotoxicity and the impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Med Sci 2017 Aug;354(2):172-81.
  19. Genovese MC, Kremer JM, van Vollenhoven RF, Alten R, Scali JJ, Kelman A, Dimonaco S, Brockwell L. Transaminase levels and hepatic events during tocilizumab treatment: pooled analysis of long-term clinical trial safety data in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Sep;69(9):1751-61.
  20. Perez A, Jansen-Chaparro S, Saigi I, Bernal-Lopez R, Minambres I, Gomez-Huelgas R. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia. J Diabetes 2014 Jan;6:9-20.
  21. Tatalovic M, Lehmann R, Cheetham M, Nowak A, Battegay E, Rampini SK. Management of hyperglycemia in persons with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus who are started on systemic glucocorticoid therapy: a systemic therapy review. BMJ Open 2019;9:1-11.
  22. Stone JH, Tuckwell K, Dimonaco S, Klearman M, Aringer M, Blockmans D, Brouwer E, Cid MC, Dasgupta B, Rech J, Salvarani C, Schett G. Trial of tocilizumab in giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med 2017 July 27;377:317-28.
  23. Wilson JC, Sarsour K, Gale S, Petho-Schramm A, Jick SS, Meier CR. Incidence and risk of glucocorticoid-associated adverse effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research 2019 April;71(4):498:511.
  24. Listing J, Gerhold K, Zink A. The risk of infections associated with rheumatoid arthritis, with its comorbidity and treatment. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013 Jan;52:53-61.
  25. Doran MF, Crowson CS, Pond GR, O’Fallon M, Gabriel SE. Predictors of infection in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol 2002 Sep;46(9):2294-2300.
  26. Singh JA, Cameron C, Noorbaloochi S, Cullis T, Tucker M, Christensen, Ghogomu ET, Coyle D, Clifford T, Tugwell P, Wells GA. Risk of serious infection in biological treatments of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2015 July;386:258-65.
  27. Courties A, Sellam J, Berenbaum F. Metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2017 Mar;29(2):214-22.
  28. Veronese N, Cooper C, Reginster JV, Hochberg M, Branco J, Bruyere O, Chapurlat R, Al-Daghri N, Dennison E, Herrero-Beaumont G, Kaux JF, Maheu E, Rizzoli R, Roth R, Rovati LC, Uebelhart, Vlaskovska M, Scheen A. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2019 Aug;49(1):9-19.
  29. Louati K, Vidal C, Berebaum F, Sellam J. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systemic literature review and meta-analysis. RMD Open 2015 Jun2;1(1):e000077.
  30. De Rooij M, van der Leeden M, Cheung J, van der Esch M, Hakkinen A, Haverkamp D, Roorda LD, Twisk J, Vollebregt J, Lems WF, Dekker J. Efficacy of tailored exercise therapy on physical functioning in patients with knee osteoarthritis and comorbidity: a randomised controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res 2017 June;69(6):807-16.
  31. Mader R, Verlaan JJ, Buskila D. Diffuse idiopathic skeleteal hyperostosis: clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2013 Dec.9(12):741-50.
  32. Hill NE, Roscoe D, Stacey MJ, Chew S. Cheiroarthropathy and tendinopathy in diabetes. Diabet Med. 2019 Aug;36(8):939-47.
  33. Denton CP, Khanna D. Systemic sclerosis. Lancet 2017 Oct 7;390:1685-99.
  34. Lui PP. Tendinopathy in diabetes mellitus patients-epidemiology, pathogenesis and management. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2017 Aug.27(8):776-87.
  35. Gundtoft P, Attrup ML, Kristensen AK, Vobbe JW, Holmich P, Sorensen L. Diabetes mellitus affect the prognosis of frozen shoulder:a 2 year follow-up study. B Jn Sports Med 20019;53(Suppl 1):A1-13.
  36. Favejee MM, Huisstede BMA, Koes BW. Frozen shoulder: the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions – systemic review. Br J Sports Med 2011 Jan;45(1):49-56.

p24 – 27 Using new T2D therapies in general practice

  1. Rosenstock J, Kahn SE, Johansen OE, Zinman B, Espeland MA, Woerle HJ, Pfarr E, Keller A, Mattheus M, Baanstra D, Meinicke T, George JT, von Eynatten M, McGuire DK, Marx N, Investigators C: Effect of Linagliptin vs Glimepiride on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The CAROLINA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019;
  2. Rosenstock J, Perkovic V, Johansen OE, Cooper ME, Kahn SE, Marx N, Alexander JH, Pencina M, Toto RD, Wanner C, Zinman B, Woerle HJ, Baanstra D, Pfarr E, Schnaidt S, Meinicke T, George JT, von Eynatten M, McGuire DK, Investigators C: Effect of Linagliptin vs Placebo on Major Cardiovascular Events in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular and Renal Risk: The CARMELINA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019;321:69-79
  3. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Lakshmanan M, Pais P, Probstfield J, Riesmeyer JS, Riddle MC, Ryden L, Xavier D, Atisso CM, Dyal L, Hall S, Rao-Melacini P, Wong G, Avezum A, Basile J, Chung N, Conget I, Cushman WC, Franek E, Hancu N, Hanefeld M, Holt S, Jansky P, Keltai M, Lanas F, Leiter LA, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Cardona Munoz EG, Pirags V, Pogosova N, Raubenheimer PJ, Shaw JE, Sheu WH, Temelkova-Kurktschiev T, Investigators R: Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2019;394:121-130
  4. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jodar E, Leiter LA, Lingvay I, Rosenstock J, Seufert J, Warren ML, Woo V, Hansen O, Holst AG, Pettersson J, Vilsboll T, Investigators S-: Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:1834-1844
  5. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JF, Nauck MA, Nissen SE, Pocock S, Poulter NR, Ravn LS, Steinberg WM, Stockner M, Zinman B, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Committee LS, Investigators LT: Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:311-322
  6. Mann JFE, Orsted DD, Brown-Frandsen K, Marso SP, Poulter NR, Rasmussen S, Tornoe K, Zinman B, Buse JB, Committee LS, Investigators: Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017;377:839-848
  7. Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR, Diaz R, Lakshmanan M, Pais P, Probstfield J, Botros FT, Riddle MC, Ryden L, Xavier D, Atisso CM, Dyal L, Hall S, Rao-Melacini P, Wong G, Avezum A, Basile J, Chung N, Conget I, Cushman WC, Franek E, Hancu N, Hanefeld M, Holt S, Jansky P, Keltai M, Lanas F, Leiter LA, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Cardona Munoz EG, Pirags V, Pogosova N, Raubenheimer PJ, Shaw JE, Sheu WH, Temelkova-Kurktschiev T, Investigators R: Dulaglutide and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an exploratory analysis of the REWIND randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2019;394:131-138
  8. Pfeffer MA, Claggett B, Diaz R, Dickstein K, Gerstein HC, Kober LV, Lawson FC, Ping L, Wei X, Lewis EF, Maggioni AP, McMurray JJ, Probstfield JL, Riddle MC, Solomon SD, Tardif JC, Investigators E: Lixisenatide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2247-2257
  9. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, Mattheus M, Devins T, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Inzucchi SE, Investigators E-RO: Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2117-2128
  10. Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW, de Zeeuw D, Fulcher G, Erondu N, Shaw W, Law G, Desai M, Matthews DR, Group CPC: Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017;377:644-657
  11. Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW, Investigators CT: Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:2295-2306
  12. Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Zinman B: Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:1801-1802
  13. Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP, Mosenzon O, Kato ET, Cahn A, Silverman MG, Zelniker TA, Kuder JF, Murphy SA, Bhatt DL, Leiter LA, McGuire DK, Wilding JPH, Ruff CT, Gause-Nilsson IAM, Fredriksson M, Johansson PA, Langkilde AM, Sabatine MS, Investigators D-T: Dapagliflozin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2019;380:347-357

p28 – 29 Reality Check: A remote diabetes educator & healing through Dadirri

  1. Deep listening (dadirri) - Creative Spirits, retrieved from https://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/education/deep-listening-dadirri on 22 November, 2020.
  2. We had to be in rhythm with the land and in nature to be able to survive.... Dr Miriam-Rose Ungunmerr-Baumann. Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association CAAMA News November 5, 2020 https://caama.com.au/news/2020/we-had-to-be-in-rhythm-with-the-land-and-in-nature-to-be-able-to-survive-dr-miriam-rose-ungunmerr-baumann

p32 – 34 Meal replacement options for weight loss

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  5. Taheri S, Zaghloul H, Chagoury O, Elhadad S, Ahmed SH, El Khatib N, Abou Amona R, El Nahas K, Suleiman N, Alnaama A, Al-Hamaq A, Charlson M, Wells MT, Al-Abdulla S, Abou-Samra AB. Effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on bodyweight and glycaemia in early type 2 diabetes (DIADEM-I): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2020;8(6):477-89.
  6. Gibson AA, Seimon RV, Lee CM, Ayre J, Franklin J, Markovic TP, Caterson ID, Sainsbury A. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. ObesRev. 2015;16(1):64-76.
  7. Parretti HM, Jebb SA, Johns DJ, Lewis AL, Christian-Brown AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ObesRev. 2016;17(3):225-34.
  8. Rehackova L, Araujo-Soares V, Adamson AJ, Steven S, Taylor R, Sniehotta FF. Acceptability of a very-low-energy diet in Type 2 diabetes: patient experiences and behaviour regulation. DiabetMed. 2017;34(11):1554-67.
  9. Yumuk V, Tsigos C, Fried M, Schindler K, Busetto L, Micic D, Toplak H. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults. ObesFacts. 2015;8(6):402-24.

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